absolute location: describes exactly where a place is using lines of latitude and longitude.
allegiance: loyalty to a nation or country.
ally: someone who cooperates with and helps you in a debate, an argument, or a war.
ambassadors: people who are chosen to represent or speak for a group.
ancestors: the people in your family who come before you.
aquaculture: raising fish in protected areas until they are big enough to harvest for human consumption.
archaeologist: someone who studies the way people once lived by looking at their homes, tools, and clothing.
delta: a broad,flat area of land formed where a river drains into a large body of water.
diverse: made up of people from a variety of cultures, backgrounds, and beliefs.
droughts: long periods without rain or snow.
gales: fierce winds
Grand Derangement, le: the deportation of more than ten thousand Acadians by the British; also called "the Great Upheaval"
Great Depression, The: a time between 1929 and 1939 when thousands of Canadians lost their jobs and could not find new ones; most people had little money.
Great Migration, The: a time between 1815 and 1850 when 8 million immigrants, mostly from Britain, Scotland, and Ireland, came to the British colonies in Canada.
landforms: the different features of the land, such as mountains, hills, or plains
lines of latitude: imaginary lines that run east and west on a map or globe; the equator is the starting point for measuring these lines.
lines of longitude: imaginary lines that run north and south on a map or blobe; the prime meridian is the starting point for measuring these lines.
logo: a special sign that gives key information.
longhouses: long houses where several related Ouendat or Haudenosaunee families lived
bastion: a word that means "stronghold"; protection often is provided by a natural rock formation.
bilingual: able to understand, speak, and write two languages.
bison: also called buffalo.
bodies of water: rivers, lakes, oceans.
British North America: the term for the British colonies in North America after the United States became independent from Britain.
elevation: the height of land compared to sea level or ocean surface.
equator: the starting point for measuring lines of latitude.
habitants: French settlers in New France who cleared and farmed the land.
heritage: what has been passed down to you from the past.
Highlands: a mountainous area in Scotland.
highway: a large road that connects towns and cities.
homestead: land that is owned by a settler.
hurricanes: large storms that form in the ocean.
World War I (1914-1918)
Canadien: a Francophone born in New France.
cavalry: a group of soldiers or police who use horses.
Chinook Jargon: the name given to a special language that was developed among the different First Nations people of the Cordillera region.
climate: the kind of weather an area has over a long period of time.
colonies: settlements that are under the control of another country, such as Britain or France.
combat: fighting against an enemy.
Confederation: on July 1, 1867, Nova Scotia, new Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario came together to form the Dominion of Canada, when the British Parliament passed the British North America Act.
cordillera: a chain of mountains
coureurs des bois: a French term meaning "runners of the woods"
Creator: a word used by First Nations to refer to a Great Spirit.
factor: the HBC (Hudson Bay Company) employee in charge of the trading post.
fertile: soil rich with nutrients that plants need for good growth.
identity: how we are shaped by the places we live, the languages we speak, the groups we belong to, where we came from, and how we see ourselves.
independent: the ability to make decisions and act for yourself; accepting responsibility for your actions.
industries: businesses that produce goods or services.
inquiry: an investigation to find answers to questions.
interpretation: what you think something means.
Inuktitut: the language of the Inuit
Iroquois Confederacy: six First Nations peoples make up this alliance; it is one of the world's oldest democratic societies.
irrigation: water supplied to dry land using pipes, ditches, or streams.